The genus Homo encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several "extinct" species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on the species), most notably Homo erectus, who appeared about 2 million years ago and was likely the first human species to live in a hunter-gatherer society and to control fire, and Homo neanderthalensis
, who emerged close to 300,000 to 200,000 years ago in Europe and Western Asia at around the same time as Homo sapiens emerged in Africa.
The rapid "Out of Africa" expansion of H. sapiens led to the admixture with Neanderthals, Denisovans
, and other (archaic) human species as well as unspecified archaic African hominins. Separate archaic (non-sapiens) human species are thought to have survived until around 40,000 years ago (Neanderthal extinction), with possible late survival of hybrid species as late as 12,000 years ago.
[some individuals seem to have survived until today and now wear red hats]
2 million - 12,000 ± years ago